I’ve just finished this plum eating spoon which I’m please with. I’m getting to grips with the synergies between understanding the wood, form (what shapes and lines come together to make a spoon), working with tools (sharpness and hold) and the unknowable element I am happy to call ‘magic’!

As is often the case, the story behind the wood brings me a satisfaction that deepens the carving experience, even though this wood brings some sadness with it. Perhaps all wood does, once it has stopped being a tree? The plum was a dying tree in the garden of a man who recently moved into a hospice. I was working as part of a gardening team tasked with clearing up the garden with a view to selling the house, and was given permission to fell the tree for spoons.

The trunk was about 6 inches in diameter and about 7 foot high and i could see from the get-go it wasn’t going to cleave straight; and so it was, a spiralling growth pattern revealed that cleaved into twisted halves. The wood is beautiful, a richness and colour to it that is so pleasing after carving basswood for a bit too long. At the edges, and here and there through the woo, a dark purple ( or plum!) stain from the sap was visible that gives an overall feeling of raspberry ripple ice cream!. Perhaps I could have used a different cleaving technique or instead used a saw to cut the wood, but I had what i had, and made the best of it. Once I started carving away with my axe the spoon began to emerge.

There is still room for improvement of course but I like the spoon pattern and will use it to shape other spoons from the tree.

Of course a good spoon needs a good finish and having got to the end of the raw linseed oil I found in Poppa’s workshop I was delighted to find a small tin of Walnut Oil (from Lee Valley in Ottawa) hiding away behind paint thinners and other wood preservatives. I have also wanted to combine my oil with beeswax to make something more protective and had some kindly given to me from Larry at Humber Valley Honey that has been sitting on my desk for some time. Using a recipe from Garden Betty I made up our first batch of Mount Wolfe Farm Spoon Butter as well. I’m now wondering if I can make some locally sourced walnut oil from the black walnuts that hammer down on the roof every Autumn, so our Spoon Butter would be a truly sustainable product!

In my blog posts Spooncarving- a ‘gateway drug’ to pro-environmental behaviour and landscape advocacy? and Craft is good for your Health I have been exploring the connections between practising crafts and skills and the benefits for both individuals and society.

Their have been a few social movements that have recognised the power of craft beyond its utility, and I had planned to put together a review to look at these movements and analyse the main features individual and socio-ecological mechanisms underpinning them.

However, with a little digging i came across this wonderful paper Crafting sustainability? An explorative study of craft in three countercultures as a learning path for the future by Hanna Hofverberg, David O. Kronlid,  and Leif Östman from Uppsala University

In it they explore three periods when craft-based movements rose to prominence in western societies:

  • 1900 (i) The Arts and Crafts Movement; (ii) The Swedish Home Crafts Movement
  • 1968 (i) Hippie Culture; (ii) The Whole Earth Catalogue
  • 2015 (i) Woodworking (ii) Makers (iii) “Craftivism”

Their study looks at how crafting might fit into stories about sustainable development from the aspect of education. The authors identify a lack of consensus in what ‘sustainable development’ is and how it should be taught so adopt a broad definition to examining the educational purpose and philosophy of each of these  counter-culture movements which are, by definition, seeking to change or transition from existing social states.

Sustainable development is a broad multi-level process in which social, ecological and economic processes function together to maintain a resilient socio-ecological system.

For each movement, its purposes, the desired skills and approaches to learning are detailed (see table below)

They also group the craft movements according to an educational profile

  • Perennialist basic knowledge of order, discipline and control to legitimise current heirarchies. Collective social needs downplayed in favour of individual.
  • Essentialist Scientific knowledge be transferred to all members of community regardless of class etc ; the creation of functional society based on facts, objectives, tech. Facts as socially useful functions. Theory/Practice dualism. Can result in structural/organisational inertia.
  • Progressivisim questions utility and expert-led approach. Socially transformative force. Learning by doing
  • Reconstructionist Continuous remodelling of society. Social norms, institutions dealing with facts as social constructs. Consensus/controversy continuum  in education. Matter is not backdrop but inter-meshed with the social
Learning blacksmithing skills with Rob Martin from Thak Ironworks at an Ontario Rural Skills Network Workshop, Mount Wolf Farm, Ontario

The authors conclude by asking the question does crafting empower its pratcitioners to take action on SD goals

  1. Individual vs collective- craft can of course be practised in isolation and can be used to enforce social norms in contradiction to the inclusive nature of sustainable development goals. For instance, the Swedish craft movement in the 1900s was use to teach women ‘good behaviour’. How inclusive is a crafting culture in terms of gender,class, race, environment and non-humans?
  2. Crafting as an expression of joy points to a fundamental relationship of the individual with the world. What constitutes beautiful or useful is individual or place-based, and so determines which of the sustainable development goals is given attention
  3. Ecological, Social and Economic dimensions produce a tension eg care for the crafts person versus the desire for cheaper products; high quality products although costing more are also more desirable because they should last longer.

This is a really interesting analysis although I was a little surprised that two movements were left out:

(1) Educational Sloyd which was developed by Otto Saloman in the 1900s and could be included with the “Swedish Home Craft Movement but was particularly focused on building character and an appreciation of the beauty of objects and skills to make them in children.

(2) “The Great Reskilling‘ of the Transition Movement started by Rob Hopkins in the mid 200Os This has similarities with all of the other movements although I would place it firmly in the Progressive/ Reconstructionist quarter with the Makers.

Another area of reflection is the idea of ‘craft’ itself and the social connotation. particularly in the west, of crafting, which is often seen as a hobby, or something to return to in retirement, when for a large part of the world making things with your hands is simply skilled work.

Craft is often looked to for its personally and socially transformational potential, but this work highlights the need to look closer at when determining their usefulness in developing sustainable livelihoods. I would like to see a deeper exploration of the educational uses of craft in specific SDG goals.

It provides a useful background to my work where I am asking whether those engaging in a craft for the first time, and also those who are developing a practice, begin a transitional movement into pro-environmental behaviour, or whether that exists as a precondition to taking up a craft. One of the key areas I plan to explore is with craft as a ‘flow’ experience which enables a more intuitive understanding of the natural complexity that exists in the world and therefore provides the basis for a set of problem solving abilities which could be put to good use in building adaptive and resilient communities.

Magpie and I have just returned from the vet in Cheltenham, Ontario, to see how his his foot is getting on after a run-in with a car in the drive way. There remains only a quarter-moon sliver of rawness now where before there was what seemed to be a Grand Canyon of spilt flesh and exposed bone. I was hoping the bandages would come off but the vet felt one more week was needed to be sure.

Magpie without his ‘cone of shame’ but left rear leg in a zip-loc gum boot

The journey to the vet is a 40 min drive and to make use of the time ‘Pie and I like to listen to the Human Current podcast. The show is available on Soundcloud and its providing an informal education for me in complexity and systems thinking, now well over its 100th episode but I started from the beginning which is perhaps a little too linear in my thinking and I will now randomise my listening. I’ve coupled this with Sante Fe Institute’s wonderful Complexity Explorer Website with its many great courses.

Its helped me think very differently about the present moment and avoid some of the anxiety of being ‘in-between’ formal employment. I left a great job as Living Landscapes Officer at Surrey Wildlife Trust to follow my head and take up a post as Visiting Scientist at the University of Waterloo on the Hedgelaying In The Ontario Landscape Project: and also to follow my heart to be with my (now) fiancee Sarah. To stay permanently I have applied for residency and an open work permit. My contract at UoW has now ended and a recent attempt to kick-start it failed when we were unsuccessful in an apploication for an Ontario Trillium Foundation grant for our Gifts of The Green Belt Rural Skills project. This apparent hiatus in my career and financial independence is anxiety-provoking and frustrating. Viewing it through a complexity lens, its become an opportunity.

Today Pie and I listened to two episodes. The first was about the idea of challenging the idea of formality in education. Entrepreneur Issac Morehouse in Episode 11 “How to be Your Own Resume’ talks about his company Praxis- conceived in a ‘flow’ state- which pairs young people with business leaders and allows them to set the focus of what they want to learn and achieve mastery in.

Praxis as a concept is a combination of theory and practice. Morehouse talks about a changing world where you can’t just sit on an educational ‘conveyer belt’. However we naturally seem to have an insecurity about bringing something new into the world, a fear of not being qualified enough, often called ‘Imposter Syndrome”. To overcome this he recommends ignoring the audience and working instead for the internal change. Praxis is learning to fly while you are building the plane. Figuring it out without direct knowledge. You don’t need to have mastery before practising. You are either a writer or not, there is no trying to be a writer (sounds much like something Yoda might say. Practising then opens you up to learning through feedback. I am of course thinking about how this can be related to crafts and skills, and its obvious in spoon carving that learning can ONLY take place with a hands-on approach.

Working towards personal mastery involves a network of skills, passions and ideas a journey driven by curiosity and exploration with creative problem solving at its core.

In Episode 12, Angie Cross and Stacey Hale talk about their own learning experiences and agree founding the Human Current is one of their most radical learning experiences. The podcast was started as a way of exploring connections and building systems through ‘casual conversations’, a wonderful example of learning while doing.

Complexity and Health Policy expert Michelle Battle-Fisher in Episode 13 relates how she became s systems thinker and outlines how she thinks a systems thinks:

  1. See the whole picture
  2. Willing to change perspective and see place to intervene in a system
  3. Interdependency of variables
  4. Concerned with the now but pay attention to long term
  5. Go wide re causes of problems
  6. Focus on structure & interaction
  7. Don’t rush to solutions when controversy emerges
  8. Visualisations

My life hasn’t been one straight forward educational track. I dropped out of formal education at 17 to work in a bookstore, then returned after 9 months to complete my A Levels and head off to University to study history. I dropped out again after 2 years to work as a motorcycle despatch rider for a year then I worked in care for 10 years with people with learning difficulties and challenging behaviours. In 2000 I went back to University to study ecology and my career in environmental conservation began. I have trained as a Druid, learned Tai-Chi and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy to cope with depression. I carve spoons and lay hedgerows.

I had this vision earlier of sitting with a globe in front of me spinning it on its axis, looking for a way in…an entry point…or a leverage point perhaps?

Now there is Ontario Rural Skills Network, Gifts of The Greenbelt, craft and sustainability research, participatory narrative inquiry, volunteering for Caledon Climate Change Task Force, Mount Wolfe Farm and so many other threads.

Its time to craft something new out of all this, something emergent. Trusting the process, making it safe to fail, quelling that fear of not being qualified enough.

In the past year or so I have been undergoing a transition in my thinking and practice away from conservation ecology into a more socio-ecological position. there are no wildlife problems after all,only human ones right? Ive always been interested in systems thinking and complexity ever since reading Fritjof Kapra’s Web of Life, but I’m beginning to explore how these relate to my practice and have inevitably begun a deep-dive with the help of Complexity Explorer and more recently the Human Current.
Thanks to these great podcasts- I’m currently working through them from Episode 1 and have therefore just discovered the work of Diego Espinosa. I listened to the podcast on his book The Certainty Merchants this morning while driving my border collie Magpie to the vets to get his bandage changed. His foot was squished by a slow moving car, but the wound is recovering really well. He loves a bit of complexity science in the car to calm his nerves!
I made some notes on the podcast but i recommend you listen to it, and the one before (Episode 6) which is really a scene setter for the question of interest to me:
How do we build more natural relationships with uncertainty?
Post WW2 society became obsessed with certainty and there rose a tribe- The Certainty Merchants- who you could pay to shore up your live against certainty. Using money we buy the things we need to make us feel safe. We have also undermined the basic organic protection mechanisms- 100,000 years of human behavioural heuristics such as strong social networks and generational economic pacts (inherited wealth). The ego-driven drive towards independence has actually increased vulnerability and reduced resilience and led to pathological systemic impacts such as stress-inflammation-diabetes epidemic.
We need to re-engage with uncertainty and accept it as part of our human condition. We can learn so much for the natural world, remembering we are part of it. Self is just a construct. Our conscious minds tend towards using statistics and probability in problem solving which remains reductionist and risk averse.
A must-listen, and undoubtedly a must-read.
If you like this then you’ll also like this read on Medium Time To Design Our Networks











Cooling off for six hours in a police cell in Esher, Surrey, in 1997, with King Arthur Pendragon taking up residence in the cell next door, I had a moment to reflect on the power of words, language and stories. We had both been arrested at the protest in Canbury Gardens, Kingston– the site of the annual Kingston Green Fair. While he was calmly debating with the duty officer as to whether Excalibur was a sword, or actually a religious artefact and therefore it should accompany him into his cell, I was contemplating my reasons for getting angry about the proposed felling of fifty six Lombardy poplars so that new residents of luxury riverside flats would have a better view of the river.

The protest included veterans from Twyford Down (1991) and Newbury Bypass (1994), much bigger protests than the one taking place in leafy, well-to-do Kingston. The line of poplars weren’t native woodland threatened by road building. They were introduced trees planted in the 1930s for screening of a now-disused power station. To those of us who attended the annual  Green Fair however, and who couldn’t leave jobs to join the big protest camps, they were a symbol of resistance to the destruction of the countryside.

At the time, the emotional stories around the protection of the trees weren’t enough for me, and importantly didn’t influence the people that seemed to matter: developers, councillors, government, the police.  I wanted more. I wanted indisputable scientific fact as to the importance of theses trees. In that police cell I decided to become an ecologist: armed with those facts- the REAL story-I would be unstoppable. Surely no one would argue with the facts! So I studied a foundation science course in my evenings, then a biology “A’ Level and finally I went to University to study ecology. A Masters Degree in Applied Ecology and Conservation followed directly and here I am, armed to the teeth with science on habitat destruction, fragmentation, invasive species and global warming. Yet its not enough. 97% of all scientist agree (Cook et al 2013) that global warming is anthropogenic in origin and causing runaway climate breakdown. The IPBES are reporting what amounts to a 6th mass extinction. Yet  the response, the action taken to address this is woefully inadequate and glacially slow.

I worked in conservation for 15 years and learned that there were however only so many people who would sit up and take action over the facts of biodiversity loss and climate change. Facts are far too abstract for most people. The economist Daniel Kahneman in his book Thinking, Fast and Slow explains that a large part of our decision making processes are fast, automatic emotional, stereotypic, and unconscious. I was beginning to find that telling people the factual story and asking them to change their lives was not working. A way through began to emerge for me by listening to people’s stories and trying to highlight with them where nature mattered; to help them see they were embedded in ‘nature’ not separate from it. Facts provide architecture but it was the stories that made them relevant. In a world beset by problems caused by human population growth and resource use, things cant be just what they are; they become what people see them as.

Choice of words and language are critical to understanding and they can be used to build bridges or erect walls. Late last year, George Monbiot called for a change in the language we use around the environment and climate change, proposing amongst other changes the use of the words climate breakdown instead of climate change to convey the sense of urgency; and that phrase ecosystem services, much hated by non-ecologists, should be instead called life support systems.

Words, in this case the deliberate removal of them from the Oxford Junior Dictionary, prompted Robert Macfarlane, Captain of the  Modern Nature Writing Ship, to collaborate with artist Jackie Morris to create The Lost Words, a tome of poems and art that have captured the hearts and minds of so many people that local fundraising campaigns to buy Lost Words have sprung up in all over Britain . At this time we are also exploring a Lost Words Ontario.

Working for the Wildlife Trusts we sometimes struggled with scientific language as a barrier to popular communication. That dreaded word ecosystem services for one, but also the concept of a Living Landscape– the landscape-level conservation thinking that is the key mission of the Trusts- defied abbreviation to media-friendly comms. When you start to explain it, it becomes two wordy but when asked to reduce it to something the public would understand it becomes something so amorphous as to lose its meaning entirely. Perhaps, I thought, some concepts are just not easily explained with words.

In Savage Gods Kingsnorth, after years of using words to fight for nature, finds himself in a place where words- the Savage Gods- are failing him, and language might be tricking him into believing he no longer has a sense of purpose.

“None of this is real. The Scot’s pine is real it is a being, a presence, the birds are real, the solidity of the earth is real and the words are nothing. Nothing. The words are not alive. The words are not quickened, they do not dance or stagger, they are not inhabited. They are hammered survey stakes, acrylic falsehoods that die in the reality of the place. All humans do is talk. Talk talk talk and out come the sounds and like poetry they change nothing but we talk talk talk anyway and we mistake the sounds for meaning or action and the tree just stands there silently and we just talk.” p31

” Is Language the Trap? The field is full of language. Everything is speaking to everything else, and some of it i can hear and some of it, because of my biology or my cultural inheritance, i am not equipped to. All nature is language- but none of it is written down.” p117

I was introduced to Paul Kingsnorth’s writing by a good friend who recognised in his works something I was going through in my own personal journey. Kingsnorth was an activist at Twyford Down, Solsbury Hill and the M11 link road. He has worked for Greenpeace and then was deputy editor of The Ecologist. In 2001 he had the honour of being named one of Britain’s Top 10 Troublemakers by the New Statesman. He is a writer of books, poetry and articles exploring place, nature and environmental concern. In 2009 he co-founded, with Dougald Hine, the Dark Mountain Project , a network of writers and artists who have all but accepted that social collapse is around the corner and have named themselves witnesses to the event.

I read ‘Confessions of a Recovering Environmentalist‘ where in a series of essays Paul explored his growing distance from the world of environmental activism. I recognised the sense of it but I wasn’t yet ready to give up ‘the fight’ as Paul seemed to had done. He had gone deeper into the world of environmental politics and protest than I ever had, however. For me, Canbury Gardens had led to Nuclear Testing and anti-WTO protests but I put my energies completely into deepening my scientific understanding.

Savage Gods finds Paul sense-making with his family from his new home in Ireland. The fire in his belly is cooling, becoming something less consumptive, more like the tributaries of a river finding its way through the land. Without the energy from those fires, he is exploring his seemingly frustrated creativity.

“What does a writer do when his words stop working? I dont know. All I know is I’m churning inside and everything I know is windskipping like brown willow leaves in a winter gale”

The move to Ireland brings reflections on place making and connection. How does a self-proclaimed “wanderer through words and worlds” make the connections with place and land that he once had and still craves. Kingsnorth knows that connection to land is an important part of his or anyone’s sense of self, – a ‘sense of reciprocity between a people and the place they live in,‘ yet he finds it almost impossible to bear once he has them.He escaped from his middle-class upbringing and he found no solidarity with his Oxford peers. Now he has also come to hate idealists like the one he used to be.

“I was born in the rootless suburbs and they have given me a rootless soul. I am not a tree. I am some kind of slinking animal in the hedgerow. I am a seed on the wind. I am water. I am coming to the rocks at the lip of the fall.” p25

This style is echoed later in the book when he quotes the Song of Amergin, the invocation of the spirit of Ireland by the mythological poet-druid of the Milesians. As with the original poem perhaps this is a calling to the spirit of the land for recognition, but not this time for a people, but for one man’s uprooted soul.

Language is perhaps our greatest achievement and, if we all just want to connect, to belong to something, language might well be the tool of our demise. Words are an abstraction of things, they are not those things. Language sets us apart in an observers role and defies belonging which we all simultaneously crave and fear. Belonging brings acceptance and annihilation of individuality in the same moment.

The most Savage Gods though seem to be not words or language but the thoughts behind them. The cognitions that form as we unconsciously filter the information from our environment with our evolutionary-sculpted sensory systems. The world we see is the one we inherited through millennia of interactions between us and our environment. The cruel trick begins with thought: the separation starts before words are formed,  because if  we saw things how they really were we would be seeing flow not form, process not state. Yet words and language are part of the road map for survival; they brought us here to where we are today.

In The Language Instinct Steven Pinker, buidling on the work of Noam Chomsky before him, proposed that the ability to learn language is inherited, that we possess a proto-language or ‘mentalese’ which is the same for every language and forms a grammatical structure on which our learning is mapped. This would suggest a thought-prison of our own making, an inability to escape from thinking outside our own box. Recent insights from  Professor of Linguistics Vyvyan Evans in his book The Language Myth challenge this notion. He argues that thoughts aren’t taking place in an abstract mentalese but are “embodied”, arising directly in and from experience. If this is indeed true, thoughts and the language that arise from them aren’t an abstraction at all, but a direct consequence of interaction with the material world, all be it still through a biological filter. It is impossible as yet for an unaided individual to see gamma radiation or smell the world as richly as a dog would.

Where we are could also be a cul-de-sac. In the science fiction novel ‘Blindsight‘ Peter Watts suggests that this separation from ‘being’ through consciousness could actually be an aberration, an evolutionary dead end.

“Evolution across the universe was nothing but the endless proliferation of automatic, organized complexity, a vast arid Turing machine full of self-replicating machinery forever unaware of its own existence. And we—we were the flukes and the fossils. We were the flightless birds lauding our own mastery over some remote island while serpents and carnivores washed up on our shores.”

Life cannot exist for long separated from itself. I am reminded of a time-lapse model of source-sink dynamics, the sink ‘winking’ out of existence unable to maintain itself in a hostile environment without migration from the source.

Savage Gods reads at first like the notebook for a finished work. Something to be honed and crafted and, well……completed. In my head I often asked Kingsnorth why he felt it necessary to publish these ‘workings out’. But if we suffer from seeing form not flow, here he gives us flow. beautifully. Here he is exploring the trap every being falls into when, rather than just doing, begins to ask themselves why?  The answer, if there is one, may not lie in the book, or the bowl or the basket but in the crafting of the book, bowl or basket. We are possessed by ghosts of the evolutionary process which we mistake for purpose. We have come too far down the line of self-reflection which was only ever meant to be a side show to the greater theme of being.

The book also feels aptly titled because it feels like a prayer offered up for a revelation, for insight into the true reality of things, and for meaning and direction.

Perhaps there is only peace to be made with that reality. Defy those Savage Gods, stop fighting and start doing. We can’t easily do both.

Savage Gods was released in early June in Europe and  is available for pre-order in North America through publishers Two Dollar Radio. I am grateful for them for providing a preview copy.






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